Let’s Talk About Cannabigerol (CBG)

What is Cannabigerol (CBG)?

CBD and THC are not the only active compounds in cannabis. There are also hundreds of beneficial minor cannabinoids, like cannabigerol (CBG). 

CBG is non-intoxicating so it can’t get people high. CBG is often called the “mother of all cannabinoids” because most other cannabinoids are derived from cannabigerolic acid (CBGa), the acidic precursor to CBG.

The majority of CBGa in cannabis converts into THCa and CBDa, with only a small amount turning into CBG. That’s why most cannabis strains typically contain less than 1% cannabigerol.

But it’s possible to get larger amounts by harvesting plants at a specific time and growing CBG-rich cultivars.

Anti-Anxiety & Antidepressant Effects

Most recently, a 2021 study found that CBG may be particularly helpful for anxiety and depression.

The researchers surveyed 121 people who used CBG-rich cannabis, finding that it was most commonly used to treat anxiety (51.2% of people), chronic pain (40.9%), depression (33.1%), and insomnia/disturbed sleep (30.7%).

Most reported that their symptoms were “very much” or “much improved”, with 80% saying that CBG-rich cannabis worked better than conventional medicine for depression, 78.3% for anxiety, 73.9% for chronic pain, and 73% for insomnia.

Some respondents also noted mild side effects similar to regular cannabis, including dry mouth, sleepiness, dry eyes, and increased appetite.

Dr. Ethan Russo, the lead researcher behind the study and a renowned cannabis expert, believes that CBG has a “strong anti-anxiety effect and for people who have had access to it, this is an almost universal describer of the effects.”

Panakeia Pure CBG Flower (10-16% CBG) by Growtown

Other CBG Benefits

Early studies suggest that CBG also has anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, antibacterial, appetite-stimulating, neuroprotective, and anticancer properties.

One 2010 study also found that CBG is a potent activator of a2 adrenergic receptors, suggesting that it could have sedative and antihypertensive effects.

While these findings are promising, more high-quality human studies are needed before we can fully understand CBG’s benefits.


CBG is similar to CBD because they’re both non-intoxicating cannabinoids with potential benefits. They share some properties, like anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and pain-relieving effects.

Having said that, CBD is more popular than CBG because it’s easier to source and has seen far more research. But minor cannabinoids like CBG are starting to get more attention.

CBG: A Promising Cannabinoid

Researchers are just beginning to examine the potential benefits and uses of CBG. The early evidence suggests that CBG holds promise for relieving anxiety, depression, pain, inflammation, and other common issues.

CBG is naturally present in small quantities in most cannabis strains. That means cannabis enthusiasts may already benefit from its unique properties and synergistic interactions with THC and CBD.

On top of that, the cannabis industry is starting to release CBG-rich products. One such product listed in our Producer Connect platform is the CBG flower from Fleurish’s newest brand, Growtown, a licensed cannabis producer based in Kemptville, Ontario.

See more Cannametrics News

Cannabis Terpenes 101: Secondary Terpenes

Understanding terpene basics and why they matter​

Terpenes are aromatic molecules that give cannabis and other plants their distinct aromas. In our previous post, we got acquainted with dominant cannabis terpenes.

This time around, we’re focusing on secondary cannabis terpenes, which are typically present in much smaller concentrations. While they might not be as important as their dominant cousins, secondary terpenes still contribute to the flavors and effects of cannabis.

Strains Rich In Secondary Terpenes

Although all cannabis strains contain them, secondary terpenes rarely break into the top three terpenes by concentration. For example, linalool is the third most abundant terpene in only a handful of strains, including Do-Si-Dos, Scooby Snacks, and Zkittlez, making these strains rather unique. 

Here’s a closer look at the ten most notable secondary cannabis terpenes: carene, camphene, caryophyllene oxide, fenchol, humulene, linalool, phellandrene, beta-pinene, terpinene, and terpineol.


Also known as delta-3 carene, this terpene has a sweet smell reminiscent of turpentine. Aside from cannabis, it’s also found in pine trees, rosemary, and other plants.Studies have shown that carene has anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties 1 and may support bone health.2 It’s also been shown to promote sleep by interacting with GABA receptors in the brain.3


Camphene is another terpene common in conifer and camphor trees, as well as valerian, nutmeg, and other plants.

It has a cooling, piney, camphor-like odor with hints of citrus. Early research suggests that it may be able to lower cholesterol and triglycerides4 and help with inflammation and pain.5

Caryophyllene Oxide​

Caryophyllene oxide is a different form of beta-caryophyllene, one of the dominant terpenes in cannabis. It’s found in the same kinds of plants, such as basil, cloves, and pepper, and has a woody scent.

Caryophyllene oxide has similar effects to regular caryophyllene, including pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral properties.6


Also known as fenchyl alcohol, fenchol is common in basil and aster flowers. It has camphor and lemon-like flavor and may have pain-relieving qualities.7


Humulene has an earthy, woody, and spicy scent and is common in hops. It hasn’t seen much research aside from studies highlighting its anti-inflammatory properties.8


One of the most recognized secondary terpenes in cannabis, linalool has a floral odor and is also found in lavender and coriander.

It’s been shown to have many beneficial properties, including sedative, anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing), antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, and pain-relieving effects.9, 10


Phellandrene is an under-researched terpene that’s found in eucalyptus plants and has a complex flavor with hints of mint, citrus, pepper, spice, and wood. It may have antidepressant and antihyperalgesic (reduced sensitivity to pain) effects.11


Beta-pinene is the lesser-known cousin of alpha-pinene, one of the dominant cannabis terpenes. It has a woody, pine-like aroma and is common in pines and some other trees.Studies suggest that it may have anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, and gastroprotective properties.12


Terpinene is common in eucalyptus, citrus, cardamom, tea tree, and other plants, and has a refreshing, woody scent. It’s been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory,13 antioxidant,14 and anticancer effects.15


Terpineol is abundant in lilac, pine, and lime blossom, and has a lilac-like aroma. Research suggests that it may have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticancer, and antidepressant properties.16, 17, 18

Summing Up

Secondary terpenes contribute to the flavor and effects of cannabis, with each strain having a unique terpene profile.

While they might not play as big of a role as their dominant cousins, secondary terpenes are still important. For example, strains rich in limonene can be a good option for calming, uplifting effects.

You can search products by their terpene profile and look for specific secondary terpenes in our Producer Connect database.

1 Huang, Xia-Ling, et al. “Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of active ingredients in the essential oils from Gynura procumbens, a traditional medicine and a new and popular food material.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 239 (2019): 111916.2 Jeong, Jong‐Geun, et al. “Low concentration of 3‐carene stimulates the differentiation of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3‐E1 subclone 4 cells.” Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives 22.1 (2008): 18-22.3 Woo, Junsung, et al. “3-Carene, a phytoncide from pine tree has a sleep-enhancing effect by targeting the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptors.” Experimental neurobiology 28.5 (2019): 593.4 Vallianou, Ioanna, et al. “Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats independently of HMG-CoA reductase activity.” PloS one 6.11 (2011): e20516.5 Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo, et al. “Antinociceptive activity and redox profile of the monoterpenes.” International Scholarly Research Notices 2013 (2013).6 Fidyt, Klaudyna, et al. “β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties.” Cancer medicine 5.10 (2016): 3007-3017.7 Takaishi, Masayuki, et al. “Inhibitory effects of monoterpenes on human TRPA1 and the structural basis of their activity.” The Journal of Physiological Sciences 64.1 (2014): 47-57.8 Rogerio, Alexandre P., et al. “Preventive and therapeutic anti‐inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpene α‐humulene in experimental airways allergic inflammation.” British journal of pharmacology 158.4 (2009): 1074-1087. of Medical and Biological Research 49.7 (2016).9 Pereira, Irina, et al. “Linalool bioactive properties and potential applicability in drug delivery systems.” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 171 (2018): 566-578.10 de Moura Linck, Viviane, et al. “Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice.” Phytomedicine 16.4 (2009): 303-307.11 Piccinelli, Ana Claudia, et al. “Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model.” Nutritional neuroscience 18.5 (2015): 217-224.12 Salehi, Bahare, et al. “Therapeutic potential of α-and β-pinene: a miracle gift of nature.” Biomolecules 9.11 (2019): 738.13 de Oliveira Ramalho, Theresa Raquel, et al. “Gamma-terpinene modulates acute inflammatory response in mice.” Planta Medica 81.14 (2015): 1248-1254.14 Rudbäck, Johanna, et al. “α-Terpinene, an antioxidant in tea tree oil, autoxidizes rapidly to skin allergens on air exposure.” Chemical research in toxicology 25.3 (2012): 713-721.15 Ya-Nan, Wang, et al. “Anticancer effects of Chenopodium ambrosiodes L. essential oil on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vitro.” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 14.10 (2015): 1813-1820.16 Vieira, Graziela, et al. “Antidepressant-like effect of terpineol in an inflammatory model of depression: Involvement of the cannabinoid system and D2 dopamine receptor.” Biomolecules 10.5 (2020): 792.17 Nogueira, M. N. M., et al. “Terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages.” Inflammation research 63.9 (2014): 769-778.18 Hassan, Saadia Bashir, et al. “Alpha terpineol: a potential anticancer agent which acts through suppressing NF-κB signalling.” Anticancer Research 30.6 (2010): 1911-1919.

How Cannametrics Started, Where It’s Moving, and Big Plans Ahead (Part 2)

What’s being developed and a message for Retailers & Producers

My conversation with Eric continued as I kept digging into the core of Cannametrics to unveil its existence: who is it really supporting – and why? It really comes down to two essential groups within the cannabis industry ecosystem that it serves: Retailers and Producers. Eric shows me the why’s and how’s Cannametrics Producer Connect is here to help what he calls “The Holy Trinity”.

What is currently being developed that excites you the most? And what is the solution that you’re proposing to Producers and Retailers? This is a bit of a two part question.

Well, let me start the second part first. The solution that I’m proposing to Retailers, Producers, and customers is a combination of what I believe is the “Holy Trinity” of cannabis related data. 

Right now, we’re collecting product data. We’re about to launch into collecting Retail data. And then we’ll combine that with consumer data – all of a sudden we’ll have our first holistic look at the cannabis marketplace. I think what’s super important to remember is that right now we have little insight into the motivations, goals, and life-world of the consumer. What are they buying and why? What are they trying to achieve? Are they achieving it? You can’t get this from retail sales data alone. You can’t get it from production data. But it all plays a part in telling that story of “what is cannabis actually doing for people and their lives”?

So how are we going to get there? We started off with our Producer Connect platform – connecting Producers and Retailers, so that Retailers have, for the first time, access to the comprehensive information they need.

However, we have realized that this is not enough to provide people with access to information. We have to help them use this information in a useful way in their day-to-day lives. So now that they have it, what can they do with it? 

We’re putting specific, detailed product knowledge in the hands of Budtenders so that they can truly connect with their customers in a way that allows them to understand products and have a deep knowledge. And this acknowledges that it is impossible for anyone to memorize cannabinoid and terpene mixes of everything they sell – nobody can do that. But what you can do is learn which cannabinoids and terpenes are good for which use cases and then have access to that information. 

And that is Cannametrics Budtender. We’re going to put detailed product knowledge in the hands of Budtenders as well as education to help them make the most out of that information. What are the cannabinoids and terpenes, what do they do, how do we talk meaningfully to our customers about that.

From there, we’re going to collect feedback from the Budtenders. What insights can we gather from talking to consumers? What do these insights tell us about these products, about their needs and goals, what is working to connect the customer with the product, and who is that customer specifically? This is critical demographic and psychographic information that will help us understand how we’re truly connecting the dots on the sales floor. 

Then the next piece of that is putting technology into the customer’s hands to be able to record their experiences, benefit from those insights and feed that back so that Producers can know what effects their products are having on people. So Retailers can know and answer, with an evidence basis, how to connect the right people with the right products? If you are a certain type of person looking to have a specific experience, what’s most likely to work for you? By combining those three data sources, we begin to have a true look at who is buying what for which purposes. Who is being successful and how can we tailor our inventory to serve our community better? How can we create products to help people better?

What do you want Retailers to know about Cannametrics?

I want them to know that we are building the solution that they have been asking us for and that we are making leaps and bounds in our ability to provide them with information and tools. That we are absolutely on the verge of the next level of usefulness and functionality.

Retailers unequivocally asked us to give them access to the detailed cannabinoid and terpene data, to the COA data. So we did it. We built this platform for them. Retailers told us they needed better education for their staff. So we built out an evidence based content stream for them.

Now, Retailers are telling us that they want to put detailed product knowledge in the hands of their budtenders. So that’s coming. They’ve told us that they want to have insights about their particular inventory that are automatically generated through integrations. That is coming very soon. They’ve told us that they are interested in having additional insights to compare the products that are available to them on the market and that is coming as well.

I think we’re just getting started. We’ve gathered a tremendous amount of information and data thus far and now we’re starting to be able to deploy this in really exciting new ways.

What do you want Producers to know about Cannametrics?

I want Producers to know what I’ve seen from the beginning — and that
is that Retailers have screamed from the rooftops “transparency,
transparency, TRANSPARENCY!” is so important for them, their staff, and
their customers. Now I’m starting to hear from even the largest
Producers this really keen interest in being transparent, in leading the
way, and not being left behind. This is becoming a true and present
reality for Producers and that is: transparency is no longer a request,
it’s a requirement.

I want them to know that we are here to help them drive that initiative and we are so excited for our current partners who are making waves in the community through being truly transparent and that we are here to help the rest make this transition quickly, easily, and efficiently. It’s a movement that’s not going away.

Citizen Stash Celebrates Pride

“Cannabis That Unites Us All - Stand For Something” - Citizen Stash​

When you think of Citizen Stash, your mind probably summons the colour ruby red –  the iconic colour statement running through their brand and products. You think of their robust, aromatic flowers with each bud containing a bounty of delicious and succulent trichomes clinging in every crevice. Their signature red logo demonstrates their tireless attention to detail and their commitment to delivering quality craft products, while challenging systematic oppression on cannabis legalization.

And Citizen Stash is just that – a Canadian Producer operating on the Coast Mountain Range of British Columbia invested in using their handcrafted cultivation methodologies to make a striking social and political impact.

An exemplary piece from their strong portfolio would be their Mimoza (Stonewall) flower – inspired by the pivotal Stonewall riots of 1969 – a series of demonstrations made by members of the LGBTQ2+ community. As summarized by Citizen Stash’s Trade Marketing Manager, Jeremy Nemanishen,

“We chose Stonewall because we believe that there is a clear link that connects LGBTQ2+ rights and cannabis legalization, and we wanted to recognize the struggle for public acceptance and legal victories driven through civil disobedience that both issues share. The fact that consistent pressure by the citizenry can help the government recognize that they have overstepped is likely the greatest achievement of a democratic society and this is celebrated by Citizen Stash. Consider it a tip of the hat to show that game recognizes game.”

Just in time for Pride this year, this product proclaims itself by its inspiration, harkened by the context of the historical Human Rights event, acknowledging the very grassroots upon which Citizen Stash stands. “Stonewall” boasts itself as a Sativa-dominant hybrid that releases aromatic notes of citruses and florals. Its potency drives an average THC level of 22.87%. To top it off, the buds are free from the use of pesticides and are hand-harvested and hand-trimmed in small batches.

But it’s not just the name of the product that expresses its involvement in LGBTQ2+ rights. Citizen Stash is working with Green Merchant who are donating 15% of sales of Mimoza (Stonewall) to the Toronto LGBTQ2+ community. Citizen Stash will be matching this by donating 10% of all sales at Green Merchant.

Citizen Stash, a team of highly dedicated and passionate advocates for providing quality cannabis accessible to all Canadians, are one of our revolutionary partners who choose to challenge oppressive systems through civil disobedience.

Declared on their website, “Citizen Stash believes that if you don’t stand for something you’ll fall for anything. The global fight for equal rights, a healthy environment and freedom of speech are core beliefs and we support all peaceful means of achieving these. We want you to Stand for Something and encourage you to be active in your community.” This resounding statement is adamantly practiced by the brand when participating in the global stand for cannabis accessibility and education.

Their vision and values are straightforward: to become a global leader in small batch cannabis production, to grow and market the highest quality cannabis in Canada, and to value their employees, customer rights, and the environment.

Cannametrics is incredibly proud to be partnered with such a progressive and socially involved Licensed Producer as Citizen Stash Cannabis Corp., as they trailblaze in a movement that impacts us all. Retailers and Consumers alike will benefit from Citizen’s Stash’s, well, stash, knowing that supporting this brand means you are contributing towards good causes.

As Nemanishen concluded,

“We celebrate Pride in much the same way we celebrate 420 and are proud to prove out the Margaret Mead quote: ‘Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.’”

Take a look into Citizen Stash’s process on their website and Instagram page